### Module 1 – Introduction to Mixed Signal Testing

Overview of Mixed Signal Testing

Static Performance

Dynamic Performance

Digital Signals

Digital Test Systems

Analog Signals

Analog Test Systems

Mixed Signal Devices

Converters

Datacom Devices

Telecom Devices

### Mixed Signal Test Systems

Waveform Digitizer

Waveform Generator

Digital Signal Processor

Mixed Signal Device Specifications

Digital Specifications

Analog Specifications

Input Offset Voltage

Input Bias Current

Input Offset Current

Common Mode Rejection

Power Supply Rejection

Gain Bandwidth

Noise

Signal-to-Noise Ratio

Harmonic Distortion

Slew Rate

Settling Time

Filters

Filter Types

Filter Performance

Filter Specifications

### Putting It All Together

A Mixed Signal Test Example

Representative Mixed Signal Test System Specifications

### Laboratory Exercises

Chapter 1 Questions

Chapter 2 Questions

### Module 2 – Testing Static Performance Parameters

Digital to Analog Converter Static Measurements

### DAC Static Specifications

Resolution

Gain and Offset

Differential and Integral Non-Linearity

Least Significant Bit

Monotoncity

### Test System Configuration for DAC Static Parameter Tests

Digital Signal Input

Capturing an Analog Output

Example DAC Data Sheet

DAC Device Architecture Considerations

Different DAC Architectures

Architectural Test Considerations

Measurement Techniques

Using Meters

Using Waveform Digitizers

Analog to Digital Converter Static Measurements

ADC Static Specifications

LSB Size

Full Scale Range

Offset and Gain

Code Transitions and Code Widths

Differential and Integral Non-Linearity

No Missing Codes

Transition Noise

Test System Configuration for ADC Static Tests

Analog Input Signal

Capturing a Digital Output Signal

Example ADC Data Sheet

Histogram Testing for DNL and INL

ADC Device Architecture Considerations

Different ADC Architectures

Architectural Test Considerations

### Laboratory Exercises

Chapter 3 Questions

Chapter 4 Questions

DSP Lab Exercise – Examining Noise in the Time Domain

### Module 3 – Mixed Signal Mathematics and Sampling Theory

### The Mathematics of DSP

Logarithms and Exponents

Decibels (dB)

Time and Frequency

Periodic Motion

Root-Mean-Square Calculations

Time to frequency translation

Fourier series

Dirichlet conditions

Complex numbers

Conversion between polar and rectangular

### Sampling Theory

Limits of Sampling

Shannon’s theorem

Nyquist theorem

Periodicity

Converting a time sample set to frequency

Discrete Fourier transform (DFT)

### Fast Fourier transform (FFT)

### Sampling Pitfalls and Solutions

Spectral replication and Aliasing

Prevention of aliasing errors

Leakage

Time sample windowing

Coherent Sampling

Fs, N, Ft and M

UTP, Fourier Frequency, frequency bins and resolution

### The Inverse FFT (IFFT) algorithm

### Laboratory Exercises

Chapter 5 Questions

Chapter 6 Questions

Lab Exercise – Creating and examining a Fourier series

Lab Exercise – Sampling

Lab Exercise – Creating a Frequency Spectrum from Digitized Samples

Lab Exercise – The Effects of Aliasing in the Frequency Domain

Lab Exercise – Inverse Fourier Transform Time Sample Generation

### Module 4 – Testing Dynamic Performance Parameters

### Digital to Analog Converter Dynamic Parameters

### Measuring SINAD, THD, SNR, IM

**Intermodulation Distortion**

Multitone Generation

**Generating the DUT input signal**

Calculating the desired signal as an array of points

Using a sine wave equation

Using an Inverse FFT

What to do with the list of codes

**Using a Waveform Digitizer to capture the DAC output**

Conditioning the analog signal for the waveform digitizer

Filtering the output signal

Digitizing the (filtered) analog signal

**Calculating the result parameters**

**Undersampling**

**Analog to Digital Converter Dynamic Parameters**

**Dynamic parameters**

**Creating an input signal**

Adjusting for zero and full scale

Input signal filtering

Acquiring and holding the input signal

Dynamic impedance problems

**Capturing the digital output data**

Coherent sampling revisited

**SINAD, THD, and SNR**

**Spurious Free Dynamic Range**

**DUT noise, system noise and averaging**

**Effective Number Of Bits (ENOB)**

**Sparkle Codes**

**Sine Histogram Technique**

**Laboratory Exercises**

Chapter 7 Questions

Chapter 8 Questions

Lab Exercise – Creating DAC inputs for a sine wave

Lab Exercise – Digitizing a Sine Wave

Lab Exercise – Coherently sampling a sine wave

Lab Exercise – Undersampling with the beat frequency method

Lab Exercise – Undersampling using the Envelope method

### Module 5 – Applying Mixed Signal Test Concepts in the Real World

**Oversampling to Improve Dynamic Range**

**Delta Sigma Conversion and Test**

How Delta Sigma Conversion Works

Self Tones

Multirate conversion

**Transmission Lines and Signal Termination**

Lumped vs. Distributed Circuits

Termination Techniques

**Jitter in Mixed Signal Test**

Jitter Effect on Coherence

Jitter Effect on SNR

Minimizing Clock Jitter

Measuring Jitter with Mixed Signal Instruments

**Mixed Signal Fixture Design**

Parasitic Circuit Elements

Signal Coupling

Capacitors

Sockets

Layout Suggestions

**General Test Issues**

Does the measurement reflect the conditions of the DUT or the test system?

Noise in the test environment

Ground Issues

Current Paths

Power Supplies

Averaging and Repeatability

**Testing Mixed Signal SOCs – An Example**